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Wednesday, February 27, 2008

Commercial Jet Uses Biofuel


The first commercial jet flight powered with biofuel lands in Amsterdam onFebruary 24, 2008. Virgin Atlantic's Boeing 747 used a biofuel mixture in one of i te fuel tanks.(powered partially by palm tree oil)In a short but historic flight, one of the company's Boeing 747-400s flew more than 200 miles (320 kilometers) from London Heathrow Airport to Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam, reaching a peak altitude of 25,000 feet (7,600 meters) during the 40-minute flight, with one of its four engines burning a blend of 20 percent coconut and babassu oils mixed with regular petroleum-based jet fuel.

Unfortunately, that low-carbon fuel of the future is not likely to be the blend that performed well here. The reason: such biofuel may end up causing rather than curing climate change, according to recent studies. If burned without additives, Biodiesel (B100) is estimated to produce about 10% more nitrogen oxide NOx tailpipe-emissions than petrodiesel In addition, fuel from the world's limited supply of coconuts could drive up the price of the cooking oil as well as lead to further clearing of endangered rainforests in Southeast Asia for palm plantation expansion. And though the babassu palm grows wild in Brazil--not unlike switchgrass, a native perennial grass that might be used for ethanol in North America--there may not be enough of it to slake much of commercial aviation's thirst for fuel. Nevertheless, recent advances in the use of cerium oxide help eliminate NOx emissions from both petrodiesel and biodiesel, and diesel fuel additives based on cerium oxide can improve fuel consumption by 11% in unmodified diesel engines.

There is ongoing research into finding more suitable crops and improving oil yield. Using the current yields, vast amounts of land and fresh water would be needed to produce enough oil to completely replace fossil fuel usage. It would require twice the land area of the US to be devoted to soybean production, or two-thirds to be devoted to rapeseed production, to meet current US heating and transportation needs.

Specially bred mustard varieties can produce reasonably high oil yields, and have the added benefit that the meal leftover after the oil has been pressed out can act as an effective and biodegradable pesticide




Biodiesel is a fuel similar (but not identical) to diesel fuel manufactured from vegetable or animal fats.Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based diesel fuel consisting of short chain alkyl (methyl or ethyl) esters, typically made by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats, which can be used (alone, or blended with conventional petrodiesel) in unmodified diesel-engine vehicles.Pure, non-blended biodiesel can be poured straight into the tank of any diesel vehicle.

It has been claimed biodiesel gives better lubricity and more complete combustion thus increasing the engine energy output and partially compensating for the higher energy density of petrodiesel. Biodiesel addition reduces wear[19] increasing the life of the fuel injection equipment that relies on the fuel for its lubrication, such as high pressure injection pumps, pump injectors (also called unit injectors) and fuel injectors. Biodiesel is considered readily biodegradable under ideal conditions and non-toxic.

Biodiesel can be used in pure form (B100) or may be blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration in most modern diesel engines. Biodiesel will degrade natural rubber gaskets and hoses in vehicles (mostly found in vehicles manufactured before 1992), although these tend to wear out naturally and most likely will have already been replaced with FKM, which is nonreactive to biodiesel.

Global biodiesel production reached 3.8 million tons in 2005. Approximately 85% of biodiesel production came from the European Union.

In the United States, average retail (at the pump) prices, including Federal and state motor taxes, of B2/B5 are lower than petroleum diesel by about 12 cents, and B20 blends are the same as petrodiesel. B99 and B100 generally cost more than petrodiesel except where local governments provide a subsidy. Biodiesel and feedstock oils produced in Asia, South America and Africa are currently less expensive than those produced in Europe and North America suggesting that imports to these wealthier nations are likely to increase in future.

Vehicle Manufacturers uses biodiesel:
* Scania: most diesel engines may operate on 100% biodiesel.

* Volkswagen/Audi: most diesel engines may operate on 100% biodiesel.

* Peugeot and Citro├źn: PSA HDi engine may run on 30% biodiesel.

Railroad use

The British businessman Richard Branson's Virgin Voyager train, number 220007 Thames Voyager, billed as the world's first "biodiesel train" was converted to run on 80% petrodiesel and only 20% biodiesel, and is expected to save 14% on direct emissions.

As a heating oil

Biodiesel can also be used as a heating fuel in domestic and commercial boilers.

Read More at :-
Deep-Fried Fuel Efficiency
Running on biodiesel
Singapore Biodiesel - Biofuel Research
Powering a Car on Waste Vegetable Oil
Plantroleum
A Restaurant Problem Becomes a Solution
[PDF]Powering Our Future New Zealand Energy Strategy to 2050
Sources:-
Jumbo Jet No Longer Biofuel Virgin after Palm Oil Fuels Flight
Biodiesel in Wikipedia

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